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张大鹏:透过经济福利看出行的公平性

2022-11-24

   2022年11月,我院教师张大鹏以独立署名身份于《Cities》发表学术论文,就当前学界热议的出行公平性问题,提出了基于经济福利分析该问题的理论和视角,搭建了出行体验与居民获得感之间的联系,提升了评估出行公平性工作中的客观性。

既有研究通常基于可达性论证出行公平性的问题,这类研究特别适用于以汽车出行为主的城市。但在以公共交通出行为主的中国大城市,居民出行的可达性分异并不够明显。加之近年来,各类政策中多次提及的“获得感”并未在中国的城市交通管理中得到直接回应。这就要求出行公平性的研究提出适合于中国城市交通发展的新理论。


论文借用了福利经济的框架,建构了出行福利的理论,凝练了出行获得感的概念,并介绍了其量化分析的方法,为实际的交通管理工作提供了理论依据。以北京市朝阳区东风乡的实地走访和市民交通出行网络调查的数据分析为例,介绍了将经济福利纳入出行公平性分析的流程。

除了理论价值之外,论文还以当前北京市公交运营的财政负担为背景,基于对城市中承受出行不公的社会群体的识别,提出了能提升车辆运营效率并促进出行公平的优化方案,为当前北京市面临的这一棘手问题提供政策建议。


论文旨在促进地理学、城市交通、社会学和心理学等领域对于出行公平性问题的探讨,丰富不同理论、视角、方法和案例之间的对话,以期学界可以持续而有力地推动出行公平的进程。

论文详情请参见《Cities》期刊。本研究得到教育部人文社会科学基金和国家自然科学基金的资助。


全文链接:

https://doi.org/10.1016/j.cities.2022.104121

来源:Cities (Volume 132, January 2023, 104121)

英文标题Understanding Mobility Inequality Through the Lens of Economic Welfare: The Difference in Willingness-to-pay And Actual Fare Matters

文章摘要:

Existing studies investigate mobility inequality from the perspectives of accessibility and non-economic welfare. This paper proposes to analyze mobility inequality through the lens of economic welfare, which reflects the difference of passengers' willingness-to-pay and the actual fare. Based on the theory of welfare economics, this paper first defines the concept and specifies the formula of economic welfare with regards to mobility inequality. Then, economic welfare is calculated regarding the elderly's bus fare in Beijing and econometric models are estimated to examine how mobility inequality is socially and spatially distributed. Results show that those with low income and living in the low-unit-house-price communities in the city center are the marginalized group. The benefits of introducing economic welfare to mobility inequality studies include (1) it can improve the objectivity in assessing travelers' feelings and identifying marginalized groups; (2) the concept of economic welfare can directly correspond to the “sense of gain” policy initiative in China; (3) the perspective of economic welfare can inform transportation pricing policies to mitigate inequality issues. To conclude, this paper contributes to the existing literature by a new perspective of economic welfare that enriches the current dialogue of mobility inequality among the geographical, transportation, sociological and psychological researchers.

(撰稿人:公共管理学院学生 付广帅)

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张大鹏|中国人民大学公共管理学院副教授